biomedicalephemera
biomedicalephemera:

Nasal Accessory Sinuses
I had a question regarding the location of the ethmoid sinus the other day. This is one of the better diagrammatic skulls that I’ve seen that displays their position in relation to the face. On the inside edge of the orbit, the cells that have been laid bare are the ethmoidal air cells. The ethmoid sinus isn’t one single cavity within the skull, but several sets of air cells within the ethmoid bone, behind the nasal cavity. 
Diseases of the Nose and Throat. Herbert Tilley, 1919.

biomedicalephemera:

Nasal Accessory Sinuses

I had a question regarding the location of the ethmoid sinus the other day. This is one of the better diagrammatic skulls that I’ve seen that displays their position in relation to the face. On the inside edge of the orbit, the cells that have been laid bare are the ethmoidal air cells. The ethmoid sinus isn’t one single cavity within the skull, but several sets of air cells within the ethmoid bone, behind the nasal cavity. 

Diseases of the Nose and Throat. Herbert Tilley, 1919.

Appearance of skin in Griscelli syndrome type 2.
This rare autosomal genetic disorder causes albinism (or varying levels of lack of pigmentation, in type 2) and immunodeficiency. It’s characterized by the hypopigmentation, frequent pyogenic (“pus-producing”) infections, enlarged spleen, and enlarged liver. Uncontrolled T-lymphocyte and macrophage activation leads to a lethal outcome. Type 1 Griscelli syndrome is almost invariably fatal by early childhood. Type 2 has a somewhat longer average longevity. 
In type 2 and type 3, allogenic bone marrow transplantation can control the disorder. However, type 1 Griscelli syndrome (which is characterized by severe neurological deficiencies, and no immunodeficiency) has no known cure.

Appearance of skin in Griscelli syndrome type 2.

This rare autosomal genetic disorder causes albinism (or varying levels of lack of pigmentation, in type 2) and immunodeficiency. It’s characterized by the hypopigmentation, frequent pyogenic (“pus-producing”) infections, enlarged spleen, and enlarged liver. Uncontrolled T-lymphocyte and macrophage activation leads to a lethal outcome. Type 1 Griscelli syndrome is almost invariably fatal by early childhood. Type 2 has a somewhat longer average longevity. 

In type 2 and type 3, allogenic bone marrow transplantation can control the disorder. However, type 1 Griscelli syndrome (which is characterized by severe neurological deficiencies, and no immunodeficiency) has no known cure.

Alcohol-induced dilated cardiomyopathy
Note the enlarged ventricular chambers - the increased size causes the appearance of thinned ventricular walls. Assumption that there is decreased musculature in heart walls can cause incorrect diagnosis of cause-of-death.
Dilated cardiomyopathy can cause systolic dysfunction and atrial fibrilation, as well as being a source of thromboembolism.

Alcohol-induced dilated cardiomyopathy

Note the enlarged ventricular chambers - the increased size causes the appearance of thinned ventricular walls. Assumption that there is decreased musculature in heart walls can cause incorrect diagnosis of cause-of-death.

Dilated cardiomyopathy can cause systolic dysfunction and atrial fibrilation, as well as being a source of thromboembolism.

X-ray of screw in child’s stomach
Unlike objects that are pointy on both ends and prone to creating punctures (such as needles), this screw does not necessarily need to be removed endoscopically. Peristaltic action will carry the screw through the intestines with the head leading and the sharp end trailing, and the body can expel it without intervention. Faecal examination and follow-up x-rays will need to be performed until the object is expelled. Physicians treating patients with similar foreign bodies may opt to admit the patient until the object is expelled, in case of complications, but this is not always necessary.

X-ray of screw in child’s stomach

Unlike objects that are pointy on both ends and prone to creating punctures (such as needles), this screw does not necessarily need to be removed endoscopically. Peristaltic action will carry the screw through the intestines with the head leading and the sharp end trailing, and the body can expel it without intervention. Faecal examination and follow-up x-rays will need to be performed until the object is expelled. Physicians treating patients with similar foreign bodies may opt to admit the patient until the object is expelled, in case of complications, but this is not always necessary.