biomedicalephemera

biomedicalephemera:

Splanchnology - The study or discourse of the viscera (guts) - Greek: Splanchn(o), “viscera”.

Stomach (organ) - From Latin stomachus, “throat, gullet, stomach” [also “pride, indignation”, since those emotions were believed to arise from the stomach]. Derived from Greek stomachos, “throat, stomach”, literally an extension of stoma, "mouth, opening"
Pertaining to the stomach - Gastr(o)-, Ventr(o)-

Abdomen - “Belly fat”, from Latin abdomen, meaning, well, what it does today. Ultimate origin of the word is unknown.
Pertaining to the abdomen - Laparo-, Abdomin(o)-, Ventr(o)-

Digestion - From Latin dis-, “apart”, gerere, “to carry”, “to assimilate food in the bowels
Pertaining to digestion - -pepsia

Lungs - From Old English lungen, from Proto-Germanic *lungw-, literally “the light organ”, legwh-, “not heavy, having little weight”. Probably from the fact that lungs float when put in water (and other organs do not).
Pertaining to the lungs - Pulmo-, Pneumo-

Liver - From Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *liep-, “to stick, adhere, fat”
Pertaining to the liver - Hepat(o)-, Hepatic, Jecor- (uncommon)

Pancreas - From Greek pankreas, "sweetbread", from pan-, “all”, and -kreas, “flesh”, presumably from the fleshy, uniform nature of the pancreas.
Pertaining to the pancreas - Pancrea-

Kidney - From Middle English kidenere, origin unknown. Possibly from cwið , “womb”, and ey, “egg”, for its shape.
Pertaining to the kidney - Nephro-, Ren(o)-

Intestines - From the Latin intestina, “inward, intestine”, from intus, “within, on the inside”. [Old English for the organ was hropp, “rope”]
Pertaining to the intestines - [Small intestine] Enter(o)-, Duoden-, Jejeun(o)- [Large intestine/Colon] Col(o)-, Sigmoid-

Spleen - From Greek splen, "the milt, spleen". From PIE *splegh-, “milt” [Note: “Milt” - fish sperm - got its name from the Proto-Germanic name for spleen, but the word once meant “guts” in general]
Pertaining to the spleen - Splen(o)-

Gall bladder - Gall from Old English galla, “gall, bile”, from PIE root *ghel- "yellowish green, gold". Bladder origin the same as urinary bladder. 
Pertaining to the gall bladder - Cholecysto-, [Bile] Chol(e)-

Bladder - From Old English bledre, “urinary bladder, cystic pimple”, from PIE root *bhle-, "to blow" [same root as "blast"!]
Pertaining to the bladder - Vesic(o)-, Cyst(o)-

Learn more about medical and biological etymology on Biomedical Ephemera!

[Images from Historical Anatomies on the Web]

[Etymologies from Online Etymology Dictionary, who you should love and give money to]

biomedicalephemera
biomedicalephemera:

Cross-section of human heart, displaying heart valves, chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles
Have you ever heard the expression “Tugging on your heart-strings”? Well, it’s not completely metaphorical, at least in terminology. There are literally parts of your heart known colloquially as “heart strings”, which have been described in an anatomical sense as far back as Vesalius. 
These “heart strings” are more properly called chordae tendineae. You can see them in the illustration, looking like thin wires or netting within the ventricles. They  start at the atrioventricular heart valves (the bicuspid or mitral and the tricuspid), and connect to the papillary muscles near the apex of the heart. The collagenous structure of these strings imparts to them a high level of strength, and the papillary muscles combined with some elastin give a high level of flexibility. they’re what keep your heart valves from everting (prolapsing) when the blood moves from the atria to the ventricles.
See, the valves have no muscular structure of their own, but work because the pressure of the blood pushing against them makes them open and close taut. But if the chordae tendineae weren’t there, that same pressure that makes sure they shut well also means that their fibrous structure would end up simply turning inside-out, and the blood would flow back into the atria, instead of to the lungs or the rest of the body. Insufficiency of the heart strings is one of many possible causes of mitral prolapse and valve insufficiency (leaky valves).
Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1900.

biomedicalephemera:

Cross-section of human heart, displaying heart valves, chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles

Have you ever heard the expression “Tugging on your heart-strings”? Well, it’s not completely metaphorical, at least in terminology. There are literally parts of your heart known colloquially as “heart strings”, which have been described in an anatomical sense as far back as Vesalius. 

These “heart strings” are more properly called chordae tendineae. You can see them in the illustration, looking like thin wires or netting within the ventricles. They  start at the atrioventricular heart valves (the bicuspid or mitral and the tricuspid), and connect to the papillary muscles near the apex of the heart. The collagenous structure of these strings imparts to them a high level of strength, and the papillary muscles combined with some elastin give a high level of flexibility. they’re what keep your heart valves from everting (prolapsing) when the blood moves from the atria to the ventricles.

See, the valves have no muscular structure of their own, but work because the pressure of the blood pushing against them makes them open and close taut. But if the chordae tendineae weren’t there, that same pressure that makes sure they shut well also means that their fibrous structure would end up simply turning inside-out, and the blood would flow back into the atria, instead of to the lungs or the rest of the body. Insufficiency of the heart strings is one of many possible causes of mitral prolapse and valve insufficiency (leaky valves).

Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1900.

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A handheld ‘bio pen’ developed in the labs of the University of Wollongong (UOW) will allow surgeons to design customised implants on-site and at the time of surgery.

The BioPen, developed by researchers from the UOW-headquartered Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science (ACES), will give surgeons greater control over where the materials are deposited while also reducing the time the patient is in surgery by delivering live cells and growth factors directly to the site of injury, accelerating the regeneration of functional bone and cartilage.

The BioPen works similar to 3D printing methods by delivering cell material inside a biopolymer such as alginate, a seaweed extract, protected by a second, outer layer of gel material. The two layers of gel are combined in the pen head as it is extruded onto the bone surface and the surgeon ‘draws’ with the ink to fill in the damaged bone section.

A low powered ultra-violet light source is fixed to the device that solidifies the inks during dispensing, providing protection for the embedded cells while they are built up layer-by-layer to construct a 3D scaffold in the wound site.

Once the cells are ‘drawn’ onto the surgery site they will multiply, become differentiated into nerve cells, muscle cells or bone cells and will eventually turn from individual cells into a thriving community of cells in the form of a functioning a tissue, such as nerves, or a muscle.

The device can also be seeded with growth factors or other drugs to assist regrowth and recovery, while the hand-held design allows for precision in theatre and ease of transportation. 

Read more here.

As Jorge Odón, an argentine car mechanic slept, his mind jumped from a method to retrieve a cork from a wine bottle to the realization that the same method could be used on a baby stuck in the birth canal.Mr. Odón, 59, built his first prototype in his kitchen, using a glass jar for a womb, his daughter’s doll for the trapped baby, and a fabric bag and sleeve sewn by his wife as his lifesaving device.
Unlikely as it seems, the idea that took shape on his counter has won the enthusiastic endorsement of the World Health Organization and major donors, and an American medical technology company has just licensed it for production.
With the Odón Device, an attendant slips a plastic bag inside a lubricated plastic sleeve around the head, inflates it to grip the head and pulls the bag until the baby emerges.
Doctors say it has enormous potential to save babies in poor countries, and perhaps to reduce cesarean section births in rich ones.        
Read more here.

As Jorge Odón, an argentine car mechanic slept, his mind jumped from a method to retrieve a cork from a wine bottle to the realization that the same method could be used on a baby stuck in the birth canal.

Mr. Odón, 59, built his first prototype in his kitchen, using a glass jar for a womb, his daughter’s doll for the trapped baby, and a fabric bag and sleeve sewn by his wife as his lifesaving device.

Unlikely as it seems, the idea that took shape on his counter has won the enthusiastic endorsement of the World Health Organization and major donors, and an American medical technology company has just licensed it for production.

With the Odón Device, an attendant slips a plastic bag inside a lubricated plastic sleeve around the head, inflates it to grip the head and pulls the bag until the baby emerges.

Doctors say it has enormous potential to save babies in poor countries, and perhaps to reduce cesarean section births in rich ones.        


Read more here.